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bd40bc7c7a Political Liberalism. He does this by imagining persons in a situation prior to the establishment of society, the State of Nature. Rousseau wrote his Second Discourse in response to an essay contest sponsored by the Academy of Dijon. Each of these contracts is concerned with men's control of women, or a particular mans control of a particular woman generalized. Mens relationships of power to one another change, but womens relationship to mens power does not. 1982. Patriarcha' and Other Writings.
Theorizing from within the emerging tradition of care ethics, feminist philosophers such as Baier and Held argue that social contract theory fails as an adequate account of our moral or political obligations. The sovereign is thus formed when free and equal persons come together and agree to create themselves anew as a single body, directed to the good of all considered together. Second, they must imbue some one person or assembly of persons with the authority and power to enforce the initial contract. Many philosophers have argued, however, that when we look more closely at the characteristics of the liberal individual, what we find is not a representation of universal humanity, but a historically located, specific type of person. From Hobbes point of view, we are essentially very complicated organic machines, responding to the stimuli of the world mechanistically and in accordance with universal laws of human nature. This is a universal claim: it is meant to cover all human actions under all circumstances in society or out of it, with regard to strangers and friends alike, with regard to small ends and the most generalized of human desires, such as the desire for power and status. One cannot transfer one's will to another, to do with as he or she sees fit, as one does in representative democracies. "Morals by agreement" are therefore created out of the rationality of exclusively self-interested agents.